These manipulations exploit vulnerabilities.
Vulnerabilites are due to the way information is presented online and can be exploited by bad actors to manipulate opinion.
Fake Social Media Profiles
By creating fake users, pages and groups with a variety of interests and commitments, attackers can mislead users about the reliability of the content and amplify its adoption.
Fake online polls
Create fake online polls, or manipulate existing online polls to generate fake engagement metrics and thus manipulate perception of given issue.
Data voids prefilling
Data voids prefilling can be used to fill the lack of quality and authoritative sources in search engine results to impose a narrative on a topic.
Paid targeted ads
Using paid targeted ads makes it possible to disseminate messages by targeting specific users on the basis of their personal data.
Automated profiles are designed to amplify content and give appearance content is more “popular” than it is. They can operate as a network, to function in a coordinated manner.
Create fake or imposter news sites
Fake news sites can be used to share information while misleading users. These sites often have some superficial markers of authenticity, such as naming and site-design.
The attention economy allows bad actors to gain money and views by publishing content that exploits our biases and tendencies to artificially create “engagement”, a metric for visibility that is too often misrepresented as measuring credibility or importance.